The tyre is a ring-shaped part of the car that is attached to the rim. It ensures the traction of the vehicle and carries its load on the ground. The tyre (inflated tyre) also absorbs shocks caused by uneven surfaces.

The word bond comes from the word hold. A wheel with a tyre is a wheel with (clothing).

The modern tyre is made of natural rubber, synthetic rubber, wire, fabric, carbon black and other chemical compounds.

The modern tyre consists of two parts: the tread and the body. The tread provides grip while the body contains compressed air. The first rubber tyres are hard, which means that their resistance does not need air. Solid rubber tyres are still used in some applications, for example in mobile lawnmowers, wheels and wheelbarrows.

tyre profile

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For the development of rubber, the tyre was simply a metal ring mounted on a wooden wheel. The metal ring (the tyre) was first heated to expand and then mounted on a wooden wheel. After cooling, it is compressed and therefore has a very good grip on the engine.

Wooden wheel with metal tyre

Image source:

Nowadays we also use metal tires in locomotives and railway wagons.

The locomotive wheel

The source of the image: Slambo on the.Wikipedia – Photo transferred by Sean Lamb (en:User:Slambo) from the.Wikipedia; en:Image:Steam locomotive driving wheel.jpgg transferred to Commons from User:Trengarasu with CommonsHelper, CC BY-SA 2.0,

The vehicle tyres can be divided into three categories according to their load capacity

  1. Light and medium weight tyres
  2. Heavy tires
  3. Tyres for other purposes

Light and medium weight tyres

Light tires can carry loads from 250 to 500 kg and medium tires from 500 to 1500 kg.

Light and medium weight tyres can be classified as follows

(a). Winter tires: These tyres are able to maintain traction on snow and ice.

(b). Tyres for all seasons: These tyres can be used in both winter and summer.

(c). Tyres for all terrains. This type of tyre can be used both on- and off-road.

(d). The muddy area: These tires can roll in the mud.

(e). High Speed Tyres : These tyres are suitable for speeds up to 270 km/h.

(f). Ultra-high speed tires : These tyres can reach speeds of up to 299 km/h.

(g). Driving with flat tires : These tires can be punctured (although at a lower speed).

(h). Tyres for racing cars: These tyres have a shorter service life, but have a high coefficient of friction when cornering and accelerating.

Truck tyres

Truck tyres have a load capacity of 1800 kg to 2500 kg. Examples are truck and off-road tyres.

Tyres for other purposes

These include aircraft, bicycles, motorcycles and industrial tyres such as excavators, tractors, forklift trucks, shovels and rollers.

Risk to tyres

Tyres can be dangerous for the following two reasons.

  1. Perforation : This can happen due to belt separation, flattening, etc.
  2. Friction loss : This can happen due to snow, ice, melting tires and soft ground.

Understand the alphabets, words and numbers printed on the bus

The modern pneumatic bus has different numbers, words and alphabets on which its technical characteristics are written.

For example, outside field 225/40 ZR 19 93Y.

External means that this side of the tyre must point towards the vehicle.

225 – belt width in mm.

40 is a percentage of the sidewall height of the tyre in relation to the width of the tyre.

R is used for radial offset layers, D for diagonal offset layers and B for tape offset layers.

19 is the size of a border in inches.

93 – Tax index

Y is the rated speed of the bus.

The arrow symbol on the tire indicates the direction of rotation of the tire.

Read it: Tyres and casings without inner tube